The Presidential $1 coin program was established by Congressional legislation in 2005. Beginning with the George Washington coin in January 2007, the US Mint produced four separate varieties each year, with each President honored in succession. The obverse design of the coins changes with each President, while the reverse design featuring the Statue of Liberty is consistent. Grover Cleveland, who served two separate terms as both the 22nd President and 24th President, is honored on two separate issues.
The Pilgrims were English Dissenters, a religious group that objected to certain practices of the Church of England. Facing persecution under the rule of James I, a group including William Bradford fled to the Netherlands in 1608, and more famously to the New World in 1620 aboard the Mayflower. Though they planned to sail to Virginia, they were forced to land in Massachusetts by poor weather. They established the Mayflower Compact to govern their settlement outside the governance of the Virginia Colony; this document is considered a founding document of American democracy. The annual Thanksgiving holiday is traced to the Pilgrim’s celebration of a successful harvest in 1621.
In 1803, Thomas Jefferson commissioned the Corps of Discovery, a small group of volunteers tasked with exploring the American West. The leaders of the expedition were Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, and the venture is more commonly known as the Lewis & Clark Expedition. The United States had somewhat inadvertently purchased a large claim from France, the Louisiana Purchase, and Lewis & Clark were some of the first Americans to explore these territories and the lands further west. They reached the Pacific Ocean near the mouth of the Columbia River in November 1804 and spent the winter there near present-day Astoria, Oregon. The expedition helped later American claims over the Oregon Country, which was also claimed by Great Britain until the Oregon Treaty of 1846.
For most people, our experiences in everyday life are with using lower numbers like one, two, or ten. We not only comprehend what it means to buy five apples, but we can also visualize exactly what that might look like. In other words, these are numbers that fall within a range that are very intuitive for most humans.
Extrapolate that a little higher and we can still comprehend the numbers, but we start to lose that intuition.
Are there 1,500 or 2,000 people at a music venue? It’s hard to know for sure, but we do at least have a basic comprehension of the sizes of those numbers. Every day, we do math with numbers in the thousands – a paycheck, a credit card bill, or paying rent.
Alabama was admitted to the Union as the 22nd state in 1819. One hundred years later, the Alabama Centennial Commission celebrated the anniversary with various local events. Perhaps envious of other states – legislation for a Maine centennial half-dollar was pending – the Commission lobbied Alabama Congressman Lilius Bratton Rainey for a half dollar of their own. Congressman Rainey introduced a bill asking for 100,000 commemorative half dollars on February 28, 1920. The legislation was passed later that year together with two other bills, each authorizing a commemorative issue: the Maine Centennial half-dollar, the Alabama Centennial half-dollar, and the Pilgrim Tercentenary half-dollar.
By the early 1920s, the American film industry had concentrated in Hollywood. However, the industry found itself in serious trouble following a number of lurid scandals. Even in this era of silent films, there was also criticism of Hollywood for sexual explicitness. Facing the prospect of a public boycott and government intervention, the industry looked for ways to improve its image.
Today, we all know the U.S. dollar as an iconic currency that is recognizable to people around the world.
How and why was it conceived, and why do we call it a “dollar” or a “buck”? How did the dollar’s early history help to shape today’s world?
Captain James Cook became the first European to reach the Hawaiian Islands on his third voyage in January 1778. After exploring the further reaches of the Pacific over the following year, he stopped in the Hawaiian Islands again and was killed in an altercation with natives. A century and a half later, Hawaii was a territory of the United States. A group of Hawaiian socialites set out to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Cook’s landing; one of their proposals was a commemorative half dollar. The proceeds were slated for the establishment of a memorabilia collection related to Cook’s voyage, which today resides in the Bishop Museum in Honolulu.
Global gold demand in Q1 2017 was 1,034.5t. The 18% year-on-year decline suffers from the comparison with Q1 2016, which was the strongest first quarter. Inflows into ETFs of 109.1t, although solid, were nonetheless a fraction of last year’s near-record inflows. Slower central bank demand also contributed to the weakness. Bar and coin investment, however, was healthy at 289.8t (+9% y-o-y), while demand firmed slightly in both the jewellery and technology sectors.
The proliferation of commemorative coins in the 1920s and 1930s had led to a number of abuses. First, many issues were produced at multiple mints over multiple years, leading to an excessive number of varieties for collectors to obtain a full set. For example, there are a total of fourteen varieties of the Oregon Trail Memorial half dollar. Low mintages of some of these varieties exacerbated the problem. Naturally, coin dealers delighted in the issuance of multiple varieties, which often proved extremely profitable for them.